Values constitute the foundation of the attitudes and beliefs that influence one’s behaviour and way of life. They help to form the principles underlying human conduct and critical judgement, and are qualities that learners should develop. Some examples of values are rights and responsibilities, commitment, honesty and national identity. Closely associated with values are attitudes. The latter supports motivation and cognitive functioning, and affects one’s way of reacting to events or situations. Since both values and attitudes significantly affect the way a student learns, they form an important part of the school curriculum.
Generic skills are skills, abilities and attributes which are fundamental in helping students to acquire, construct and apply knowledge. They are developed through the learning and teaching that takes place in different subjects or Key Learning Areas, and are transferable to different learning situations. Nine types of generic skills are identified in the Hong Kong school curriculum, i.e. collaboration skills, communication skills, creativity, critical thinking skills, information technology skills, numeracy skills, problem-solving skills, self-management skills and study skills.
A guide prepared by the Curriculum Development Council - Hong Kong Examination and Assessment Authority Committee. It comprises curriculum aims/objectives, learning content, learning outcomes, and assessment guidelines.
Individuals who are different from each other in terms of maturity, motivation, ability, learning styles, aspirations, interests, aptitudes and socio-economic background.
Booklet 6 Quality Learning and Teaching Resources - Facilitating Effective Learning
This is one of a series of 12 booklets in the Senior Secondary Curriculum Guide.  Its contents are as follows:
6.1 Purpose of the Booklet
6.2 Function of Learning and Teaching Resources
6.3 Types of Learning and Teaching Resources
  6.3.1 Textbooks
  6.3.2 Reference books and other printed materials
  6.3.3 Multimedia resources
  6.3.4 School libraries
  6.3.5 Community resources
6.4 School-based Resources Development: Managing and Sharing Learning and Teaching Resources
6.1 Purpose of the Booklet
To introduce functions and types of learning and teaching resources
To introduce strategies for effective resources development
To provide guidance on how resources can be effectively used with examples of good practice
6.2 Function of Learning and Teaching Resources
The purpose of learning and teaching resources is to provide a source of learning experiences for students. They should be able to facilitate interaction among students and teachers during the learning/ teaching process, as well as to help students to learn, broaden students’ learning experiences and meet different learning needs. If used effectively, learning and teaching resources can help students to construct knowledge for themselves and develop effective learning strategies, generic skills, values and attitudes, thus laying a solid foundation for life-long learning.
  Reflective Questions
  Do the learning and teaching resources used serve the purpose described above?  
  Were there any used resources ‘unfit’ for a particular learning activity in your school?  If so, how did you deal with them?  
6.3 Types of Learning and Teaching Resources
Learning and teaching resources are not confined to textbooks and are available in many other forms such as reference books, workbooks, worksheets, audio-visual teaching aids, web-based learning materials, computer software packages, structured courseware delivered by electronic learning management systems, Internet and media, as well as libraries, learning communities and resources in the natural environment, etc.. A wide variety of learning and teaching resources is readily available. Several types of commonly used resources in the senior secondary (SS) curriculum are discussed below.
6.3.1 Textbook
Textbooks have a positive role to play and should provide the core elements of learning in the subjects recommended by the Curriculum Development Council.  Textbooks should also be designed to develop students’ critical and creative thinking and other generic skills through the information and activities that they provide.
Quality textbooks can assist teachers by providing a ‘one-stop’ shop for materials that will help them to plan the scope and sequence of their teaching.
Tips for Selecting Textbooks
You may refer to the following website for "Notes on Selection of Textbooks and Learning Materials for Use in Schools", "Guiding Principles for Quality Textbooks", "Recommended Textbook List" and related websites.
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Example of How One School Goes about Selecting Textbooks
The Curriculum Committee formulated general criteria for the selection of textbooks, making reference to the Education Bureau (EDB) guidelines.  These general criteria (listed below) aim to help each subject panel to consider a number of key factors in textbook selection.  They should:
be in line with the curriculum aims and contain the core elements of the curriculum;
provide students with a range of materials at various levels of difficulty and present different points of view;
develop students’ learning strategies, generic skills, values and attitudes;
enhance students’ motivation and learning effectiveness;
ensure the design of tasks and activities that cater for learner diversity;
encourage self-access and independent learning;
add reflection, self assessment, peer and group assessment to the learning activities to improve learning;
provide opportunities for discussion and further enquiries to facilitate students’ critical thinking and to assist them to make informed judgements;
weigh the quality of the language used; and
take into consideration the price and the weight of the textbooks.
Based on these general criteria, different subject panels have further developed subject-based textbook selection checklists with weighting factors related to the needs of their subjects.  Panel heads have invited those involved to use the criteria/ checklists to make suitable judgements about a number of textbooks.
Using the checklist, every set of textbooks was reviewed by at least two panel members independently.  After reviewing the textbooks and analysing their evaluation data, the subject panels recommended the most suitable textbook for their students.
The compiled textbook list for the coming school year was tabled and received/ endorsed at an Incorporated Management Committee meeting.
‘Recommended Textbook List’ serves as a reference for textbook selection for most SS subjects, except subjects that require great variety of learning resources such as Literature in English, Liberal Studies, Health Management and Social Care, Technology and Living, Music and Visual Arts.
Tips for Making Effective Use of Textbooks
Textbooks are not the only resources that bring about learning.  Teachers should:
exercise professional judgement in deciding whether to cover all the materials in the textbook or not;
adapt or replace any part of a textbook found inappropriate to the needs of the students and use other supplementary learning and teaching resources to support students’ learning;
re-organise the units and the sequence of activities in a unit to cater for students’ differing abilities; and
choose amongst the materials provided, e.g. avoid using workbooks/ supplementary exercises associated with particular textbooks indiscriminately in order to leave space for students to engage in a range of meaningful learning tasks.
  Reflective Questions
  What is the textbook selection mechanism in your panel or school?  In what way could your panel or school further improve the selection procedures so that quality textbooks are chosen for the benefits of your students (e.g. quality, price)?  
  How do teachers of your school use textbooks?  Do they use other learning and teaching resources to complement textbooks to meet students’ needs?  
6.3.2 Reference books and other printed materials
Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of other learning and teaching resources, such as reference books or other printed learning materials (e.g. supplementary reading and information materials, newspapers, articles, journals, periodicals, workbooks, exercises) to allow students to explore issues of interest, stimulate enquiry, apply/ consolidate their learning or encourage them to undertake further learning.
Teachers could also make good use of authentic resources (e.g. information leaflets, pamphlets, magazines, songs, posters) that are not written for classroom purposes, but could bring real-world issues into their classrooms.
Teachers should consider factors such as availability, affordability and copyright issues before using reference materials in the classrooms.
Tips for Copyright Issues
You may refer to the following website for issues related to copyright in education and licensing schemes in using and developing learning and teaching materials
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6.3.3 Multimedia resources
Multimedia resources, which embrace audio-visual teaching aids, web-based materials, computer software packages, online learning platforms, etc., have the following advantages in helping students’ learning:
Flexibility, adaptability
Multi-sensory experience
Possibility of interactivity
Besides complementing textbooks, multimedia resources may provide opportunities for both students and teachers to gain access to up-to-date information.  For example, teachers may select materials that present different sides of controversial issues to help students to develop their critical thinking and to make informed judgements in their daily lives.  However, teachers should evaluate whether the online information is authentic, reliable and appropriate for student learning.
Teachers are encouraged to select electronic educational products produced by different agencies, including those from EDB and overseas.  The following resources are available to support schools:
A repertoire of curriculum resources can be accessed in this EDB website ( ). Examples include:
multimedia packages and a database of learning resources for different subject curricula;
Resources Library on the Hong Kong Education City website;
Educational Television programmes;
Liberal Studies web-based resources platform;
Moral and Civic Education Resources Net;
Reading to Learn website;
Project Learning website;
Information Technology for Interactive Learning website;
Life-wide Learning Databank;
Other Learning Experiences Databank;
Guidebooks/ Tool Kits on different key tasks and themes; and
self-access learning materials related to specific issues for teachers.
Some learning and teaching materials or exemplars are available on various KLA websites in the form of publications: e.g.
Curriculum and Assessment Guides of SS subjects
Basic Education Curriculum Guide
Senior Secondary Curriculum Guide
Action Research publications (e.g. school-based collaborative action research)
Reports on research and development projects
Reference books (for teachers & students)
Other publications of the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority.
6.3.4 School libraries
School libraries and teacher-librarians play a significant and pivotal role in helping students and teachers to gain access to knowledge and information that are needed in the process of learning and teaching.
School libraries should serve as:
resource centres with ample information in a variety of formats, where teachers and students can read, learn and share;
favourable physical space equipped with traditional, technological and human resources for students to engage in enjoyable reading and learning; and
virtual environment in conducting enquiries, using information technology to navigate for information and constructing and co-constructing knowledge.
The school library service has evolved from the traditional services of book purchasing and lending.  It is now serving as a resource centre to support learning and teaching.  A school library should provide ready-to-use learning and teaching resources (or extended reading materials) and multimedia resources which address overall school curriculum needs.  A teacher-librarian should also
collaborate with subject teachers (in particular teachers of Liberal Studies) to facilitate the resource needs of students’ learning;
co-ordinate teachers in school-based reading programmes; and
develop students’ information skills and attitudes in using information derived from all formats and contexts appropriately and ethically.
A teacher-librarian is the key personnel of a school library and his/ her expertise and experience is crucial to the implementation of the SS curriculum. Schools need to realise that the successful development of a school library service is heavily influenced by how the role of a teacher-librarian is perceived in a school. The major roles suggested in the Basic Education Curriculum Guide (Booklet 7) are reiterated to recognise their contribution to learning and teaching, namely, Library-in-charge, Reading co-ordinator, Information specialist, Teaching partner and Curriculum resources facilitator. Schools should therefore ensure sufficient capacity and space for teacher-librarians to concentrate on carrying out the above major roles and responsibilities effectively.
In the contexts of SS education, teacher-librarians could facilitate learning and teaching across the curriculum.  As knowledge managers, resources and information specialists, they are able to bridge the gap between the world of information and resources and the world of the classroom to help students to attain the curriculum goals of all Key Learning Areas (KLAs) (e.g. Liberal Studies’ Independent Enquiry Studies).
An Example of Collaboration with a Liberal Studies Teacher in Helping Students to Conduct an Enquiry on ‘Weight and Self Image’ in the Module ‘Self and Personal Development’
The lessons aim to enable students to:
gain an understanding of the importance of evaluating different views and opinions;
become more critical about people’s views; and
be more critical of the factors affecting self-image.
The roles of the teacher-librarian in collaborative teaching are to :
teach students how to locate information relating to eating disorders such as Anorexia, Bulimia and weight through different sources including books, magazines, newspapers, electronic databases and the internet;
discuss the reliability of different sources of information; and
critically evaluate and select appropriate sources of information for discussion.
Good Practices of School Libraries
To share good practices of school library services, EDB has published a booklet titled “Exemplars on School Library Services”.  As many as 20 schools have shared their experiences in mobilising school library resources to support learning and teaching with an emphasis on the roles of the teacher-librarian and the functions of the school library.  This booklet is also available online at the website
  Reflective Questions
  What are the existing strengths that your school library service could build on to help student learning?  
  How would your school create time and space for the teacher-librarian to contribute in different curriculum areas?  
  What would be the appropriate ‘cut-in’ points for the teacher-librarian to foster further collaboration with subject panels/ teachers and relevant school initiatives?  
6.3.5 Community resources
The use of community resources includes a combination of people, places, financial resources, websites and materials.Teachers could also make use of public libraries, museums, educational parks and media (including newspaper and TV), as well as services provided by HKEdCity ( and non-government organisations.
Effective use of community resources not only helps learning and teaching, but also introduces students to many ‘resource hubs’ in society to further engage in life-long learning after SS education.
Teachers may also browse the EDB Life-wide Learning Activity Data Bank ( ) and the EDB’s School-Business Partnership website ( ) to update information on ‘learning beyond the classroom’ and Other Learning Experiences opportunities offered by local community groups.
Example: How to search for activities in “Life-wide Learning Activity Data Bank”?
Visit our homepage: ( )
Click on “LWL Activity Data Bank
Click “Search for Activities / Organizations
Choose the options and click “Search
Example: Experience Sharing by a Senior Mathematics Teacher
A textbook nowadays is no longer regarded as a bible or as the only source of information.  It is limited by its static nature and by its relatively linear and didactic rather than interactive design.  For example, when teaching the graph of parabola y = ax2 + bx + c, the teacher can refer to graphs printed in the textbooks, but the static diagrams do not provide a dynamic picture of the relations between the features of the graphs and the coefficients of the equations.  Moreover, even though some good textbooks provide well-organised activities for students to explore these relations, it is very time-consuming for students to plot many different graphs on paper, and this will hinder them from making their own conjectures.
With the use of resources on the Internet, graphing calculators or other interactive algebraic equation graphing software, the plotting of graphs will become easy and students will be able to focus more on investigatory tasks.  For instance, students might be asked to plot graphs with different values of a, but keeping the other parameters b and c constant, and observe the effect of the value of a upon the features of the graphs.  They might then be encouraged to discuss their observations and conjectures with each other, and use the software to justify, during which time the teacher might focus on asking them to explain their reasoning.  For example, some students may suggest that “the smaller the value of a, the bigger the opening of the graph will be”, the teacher might then ask other students to check whether this statement holds when the value of a is negative.  These interactive and investigatory tasks can be accomplished only if the teachers go beyond the textbook for the content of their instructions and make use of a wide range of learning resources.
  Reflective Question
  How effective are the currently used resources in helping student learning and learning how to learn?  
6.4 School-based Resources Development: Managing and Sharing Learning and Teaching Resources
The following are some suggested practices that help schools to develop, share and manage learning and teaching resources effectively:
Teachers working closely with the school librarian to produce strategic plans for the procurement and development of resource materials based on the needs of learning and teaching.
Setting up a resource bank on the school intranet for the sharing of learning and teaching resources.  Schools may provide technical and managerial support to monitor the maintenance and development of the resource bank.
Updating resource materials from time to time and developing an efficient search system and resource bank to facilitate easy access and retrieval.
Reflecting and sharing experiences among teachers on how to use resources effectively.
Devising a review mechanism for evaluating existing resources to further promote learning, teaching and curriculum development.  For example, schools may include the use of learning and teaching resources as an agenda item in professional meetings such as whole-school curriculum planning meetings and KLA department meetings.
Web-based Resource Platform for Liberal Studies
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The following are some examples of school-based resources management/ development:
Some Examples of School-based Resources Management/ Development
Example 1
Teachers set up reading groups/ sharing groups among themselves for discussion of learning and teaching skills, teaching resources and current educational developments. The groupings and attendance at meetings are on a voluntary basis. Teachers usually meet at lunch hours, after school or during free lessons. Teachers find these informal gatherings more fruitful than formal meetings.
Example 2
A school sets up a resource corner in the staff room to keep all documents related to the SS curriculum, e.g. consultation reports, curriculum and assessment guides for teachers’ reference. This raises teachers’ awareness of the development of the SS curriculum and keeps them up-to-date with the latest information.
Example 3
A school extracts key issues/ major recommendations from various consultation documents and disseminates them to teachers, so that they understand the rationales behind current developments.
Example 4
A school has set up a Liberal Studies resource centre for teachers to pool learning and teaching resources collected from different sources, e.g. reference books, newspapers, magazines, Internet. This school has also joined a teacher network that shares innovative ideas and resources in Liberal Studies.
References on learning and teaching resources for specific SS subjects are available in the relevant Curriculum and Assessment Guides (CDC & HKEAA, 2007)
Website: ( )
Teachers may also use the facilities and services of the EDB’s Central Resources Centre to support their teaching.
Website: ( )
  Reflective Questions
  Are there any clearly laid-down principles/ criteria for the selection and evaluation of textbooks and other learning and teaching resources in your school?  How much stakeholders’ involvement is there in the selection and evaluation process?  
  Has the content of textbooks been adapted to cater for the diverse needs of students?  
  What collaborative efforts have been made between the teacher-librarian and subject teachers in the implementation of resource-based learning? What strategies have your school adopted to nurture information literacy among SS students?  
  How are your school’s learning and teaching resources kept, shared and managed?  
  How would your school policies on learning resources make an impact on improving student learning?  
  How could you support newly-joined teachers to improve their professional capacity, in terms of using and identifying appropriate learning and teaching resources?  
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