Key Stage 2
Reading

Basic Competency (BC) Descriptors

Examples

(The examples listed below are not prescriptive or exhaustive)

Reading aloud unfamiliar words with a range of vowel and consonant
soundsin short and simple texts (KS)

 

Showing a basic understanding of simple and familiar texts by reading aloud the texts with comprehensible pronunciation and generally appropriate pace, stress, rhythm and intonation (KS, ES)

  • reading in meaningful chunks
  • understanding simple punctuation by using appropriate intonation and pausing
  • recognizing at sight some basic vocabulary items
Understanding the use of a small range of language features in simple literary / imaginative texts (ES)
  • simile
    (May is like a little angel.)
    (The boy runs as fast as a leopard.
    )
  • personification
    (The Wind said to the Cloud, 'Don't cry! I'll help you.')
  • rhyme
  • rhythm
  • alliteration
    (The baby boy looks at the big balloon.)
  • onomatopoeia
    (The little duck quacks.)
Using a range of reading strategies to understand the meaningof simple
texts with the help of cues
(IS, KS, ES)
  • scanning for specific information
  • skimming for gist
  • sequencing events
  • identifying main ideas
  • identifying details that support a main idea
  • making inferences
  • working out the meaning of unknown words by recognizing prefixes and suffixes
  • predicting the likely development of the text
  • understanding the connection between ideas by identifying a range of cohesive devices (because / so / when / first / next / finally / and / but / or / too / following pronoun references)
  • recognizing key words in a sentence
  • predicting the content using the book cover, picture cues, prior knowledge and personal experience
  • predicting the meaning of unfamiliar words by using picture cues and contextual clues
  • recognizing formulaic or common expressions
  • recognizing repetitive language patterns
  • understanding the functions of basic punctuation (full-stop / question mark / comma / apostrophe / exclamation mark / quotation marks)
Applying simple reference skills with the help of cues (KS)
  • locating words in English dictionaries
  • locating information in simple price lists, charts and directories
  • obtaining information about the reading materials from the blurbs, glossaries, book covers, tables of contents
  • locating vocabulary in the word cards or word charts
  • making word cards or word books under different topics for reference
  • using picture dictionaries or word books to check meaning and spelling

 
Teachers could assess pupilsˇ¦ ability to discriminate words with different vowel and consonant sounds after introducing and teaching these sounds in context. They can select sounds from the following groups to focus on:
1. Short vowels (e.g. apple, egg, ink, ox, umbrella)
2. Long vowels (e.g. day, eat, cry, nose, new)
3. Other vowels (e.g. girl, toy, good, ball, doctor)
4. Consonants (with a single letter) (e.g. boy, kite, red, food, sleep)
5. Consonant digraphs (e.g. chair, shout, that, sing, laugh)
6. Consonant blends (e.g. class, green, speak, ask, left)
However, as young learners may find learning consonant digraphs and blends difficult, teachers should introduce these sounds at a later stage in Primary 2 and 3 after the learners have gained a good grasp of the vowel and consonant (with a single letter) sounds.

 

In Key Stages 1 and 2, meaning includes ideas, information, opinions, feelings and preferences. As learners progress, meaning also includes intentions and attitudes.

  To assist learners in their development as proficient users of the language, it is important that they are exposed systematically to a good variety of text types, including those that can be viewed in the media and on the Internet. The following suggests the variety and range of text types for Key Stages 1 and 2.

Text Types for KS1
Additional Text Types for KS2
Narrative Texts
- Literary







Cartoons
Comics
Fables
Fairy tales
Poems
Rhymes
Songs
Stories

Jokes
Myths
Plays
Tongue twisters




Narrative Texts
- Non-literary


Diaries
Personal recounts


Accounts
Autobiographies
Biographies
Journals
     
Information Texts
















Charts
Coupons
Expository
Forms
Labels
leaflets
Lists
Menus
Notices
Personal descriptions
Picture dictionaries
Product information
Riddles
Signs
Tables
Timetables

Announcements
Catalogues
Children's encyclopedia
Dictionaries
Directories
Informational reports
Maps and legends
News reports
Pamphlets
Questionnaires
Rules
Weather reports




     
Exchanges




Cards
Conversations
Notes and messages
Personal letters
Postcards
Email
Formal letters
Telephone conversations

     
Procedural Texts

Directions
Instructions
Procedures
Recipes
     
Explanatory Texts

Captions
Illustrations
Explanations of how and why
     
Persuasive Texts


Advertisements
Posters

Brochures
Discussions
Expository
     

  Examples of cues are realia, pictures, key words, repeated demonstrations, prompts, guiding questions and frameworks. As learners progress, teachers are expected to provide cues which are less direct.