— 根據新高中課程,「其他學習經歷」是三個組成部分之一,與核心及選修科目(包括應用學習課程)相輔相成,讓學生達至全人發展。在基礎教育(小一至中三)的五種基要學習經歷所建立的基礎上,學校會為學生提供多種不同的「其他學習經歷」機會,鼓勵他們參與五個範疇的「其他學習經歷」,包括德育及公民教育社會服務與工作有關的經驗藝術發展體育發展

最新修訂建議

隨著在2012年首個三年新高中課程的教學循環及首屆香港中學文憑考試順利完成後,教育局、課程發展議會及香港考試及評核局攜手合作,共同展開新學制檢討,旨在檢視政策的推行成果、找出優勝之處、成功例子及面前的挑戰,為未來優化課程及評估政策提出切實有效的建議。我們因應檢討結果,就著課程、評估及銜接升學及就業出路等主要議題,已於2013年4月公佈新高中課程及評估的最新修訂建議。有關詳情,可瀏覽《新學制檢討專頁》(http://www.edb.gov.hk/nas/review)。

為符合課程的學習目標,為學生提供寬廣而多元的課程以促進學生全人發展,並尊重大部分學校的選擇及校本發展需要,新修訂建議「其他學習經歷」的分配課時為總課時的10至15%,讓學生在五個範疇(體育發展、藝術發展、德育及公民教育、社會服務、與工作有關的經驗)中,繼續獲得均衡發展。

 

「其他學習經歷」 新修訂建議的總課時百分比
德育及公民教育 10-15%

(各範疇的課時比例,
由學校因應校本情況自行調適。)

社會服務
與工作有關的經驗
藝術發展
體育發展

在新修訂下,我們鼓勵學校靈活規畫三年高中的「其他學習經歷」(包括上課時間表以內及以外的學習時間),專業自主,彈性處理。同時,「其他學習經歷」應一如以往,重質不重量及強調反思,深化及鞏固學生所學,培養終身學習的能力,促進學生全人發展。在推行「其他學習經歷」時,學校不應只為滿足課時指引的要求,而應全面考慮及規畫有關學習經歷的學習目的及所期望的學習成果。

 

*建議最新修訂的「其他學習經歷」課時分配,請參考「時間安排例子」 。

 

— 建基於現有的優勢和基礎上,學校應仔細參考各種「其他學習經歷」的建議推行模式。例如現時大部分學校均為藝術發展及體育發展提供固定課節,則此二者在新高中課程亦可透過有系統的課堂學習推行。至於德育及公民教育,一般可利用班主任課、集會、特別安排的時段及其他課堂以外的項目推行,以建立正面的價值觀。一些創新意念如生活技能教育、品格教育、倫理與宗教教育可以是德育及公民教育的組成部分。如有需要,與工作有關的經驗及社會服務可安排於課後、考試結束後、周末或學校假期舉行。

— 建基於現有的優勢或實踐:我們鼓勵學校透過檢視及把「其他學習經歷」建基於現有的優勢或實踐上,並找出「不足」和「過多」的部分,以作出有需要的調整,重質而不重量,避免重新設計所有項目或「為了改變而改變」。

 

七項主導原則

學校領導人及教師在規畫校本「其他學習經歷」課程時,可參考左圖所示的七項主導原則。最重要原則是「建基於現行的做法」,其餘六項原則是圍繞這中心原則而設立的,這顯示一切並非新增的,而是把現有的做法加強、重新訂定優次或重新概念化。

 

原則一:建基在現有的實踐或優勢上

當學校面對以下事項時應遵守第一項原則:

  • 「其他學習經歷」是建基於現有的實踐和優勢,須檢視現行的做法,找出「不足」和「過度」之處,然後作出適當的調整;

  • 避免「重新構建」整個課程,或者只是「為改變而改變」。例如:學校可參考「其他學習經歷」的建議課時,利用體育堂的學習機會,以提升學生在體育方面的發展;

  • 讓教師充分了解需要改變的原因,以便他們能積極參與計畫和發展「其他學習經歷」的課程;

  • 適當運用領導策略,例如:分散式領導,讓教師分擔「其他學習經歷」的領導職責。

原則二:以學生為本

第二項原則從學生的已有知識、態度和經歷,以及能引發興趣和促進成功的經驗出發。這項原則是:

  • 與知識傳授的模式不同,強調個人積極參與活動,茩姥ル耵漲菬飛g歷,以及他們如何內化和認識這些經歷的意義,從而改變個人的價值觀和態度;

  • 較容易在以下情況實踐:
    - 建立校本系統,把學生在「其他學習經歷」的個人參與情況記錄在學習概覽內,以確認學生的成就,並起推動作用;
    - 提供選擇以配合個別需要、興趣及經歷,讓學生得以均衡發展,提高自主意識;
    - 珍惜學生在「其他學習經歷」中的意見及責任。

原則三:學生的機會

第三項原則強調學校需要將「其他學習經歷」的機會適當地分配給所有學生。學校必須:

  • 透過學校計畫,為學生提供五大範疇的「其他學習經歷」的機會,須注意同一個活動可涉及多於一個範疇的「其他學習經歷」;

  • 計畫「其他學習經歷」的課程時,因應個別的需要,在合理的情況下提供多元化的選擇(例如:一次性的「體驗」課程);及

  • 透過審慎的安排,以免學生因不利背景(例如:低收入家庭)而被剝奪了參與「其他學習經歷」活動的機會。計畫「其他學習經歷」活動時,須考慮成本效益及負擔能力。高消費活動並不一定比低消費活動有效。

原則四:質素

第四項原則提醒我們:重視學習經歷的質素,而非數量。優質的經歷可以維持或ㄤo對某一種興趣的終身參與,並應包括以下要素:

  • 與學生分享活動的目標,提高他們的學習意圖,教師必須同時容納其他「正面但非預期」的成果;

  • 有良好的組織,能夠成為有意義的學習經歷,在規畫課程時考慮各種因素,例如學生已有的知識或經歷、學習需要、動機及活動安全;

  • 由校外組織或人士在課堂時間舉行的活動,須有註冊或准許教師在場;

  • 由負責活動的教師進行適時的事後解說,讓學生就其所學作深入的反思。

除了個人學習經歷的質素外,此項原則也會從以下幾方面來審視「其他學習經歷」的質素﹕

  • 在領導和管理層方面,審視組織「其他學習經歷」的質素

  • 在創造空間和提升專業學習方面,審視組織其他學習歷的質素

  • 透過與社區夥伴合作,審視組織「其他學習經歷」的質素

為了改善「其他學習經歷」的整體組織,學校領導人要在個人學習經歷以外,考慮以下各項﹕

  • 「其他學習經歷」的課程能否恰當地反映學校的核心價值及獨特性?

  • 活動的組織過程,例如發起者與小組的協作,有多少成效?

  • 在「其他學習經歷」的實施計畫中,預留多少時間及空間,以便為學生的學習和教師的專業學習提供機會?

  • 學校或教師有多了解社區資源和夥伴合作的含意?學校或教師與不同種類的社區資源能否建立緊密的聯繫,以成就有質素的「其他學習經歷」?

原則五:協調

第五項原則提醒我們,「其他學習經歷」不應是一連串的「沒有關連的活動」,也不應是高中課程一個割裂的部分。當「其他學習經歷」是課程中一個不可或的部分時,學校應該:

  • 確保校本「其他學習經歷」課程是基礎教育的延續,以及補充高中課程(例如:應用學習、科目的選擇)的其他組成部分;

  • 嘗試將「其他學習經歷」,與現有的校本全方位學習策略及靈活的學習時間的概念結合。例如,根據校曆表,把「其他學習經歷」編入全方位學習的日子或周期中,亦可在每循環周/ 每周上課時間表內的指定時段進行「其他學習經歷」;

  • 注意當學生選取倫理與宗教科、體育科、音樂科及視覺藝術科為選修科目,及/ 或應用學習課程時,只要能顧及相關的知識、技能及價值觀的學習,這些學習經歷便有助達到「其他學習經歷」的目標。學生可以把獲得的經驗記錄在「學生學習概覽」內。無論如何,學校應提供充足而均衡的「其他學習經歷」機會,以達致「其他學習經歷」的目的及富連貫性的高中課程。

(引證參考資料:《基礎教育課程指引》,第六冊 (課程發展議會,2002),《學會學習——終身學習與全人發展》(課程發展議會,2001))

原則六:彈性處理

第六項原則強調,彈性處理「其他學習經歷」課程的重要性。學校可以:

  • 靈活地計畫「其他學習經歷」,廣泛利用的社區資源及時間、地點與人物的互相配合;

  • 向學生提供一系列的策略,以提高體驗學習的質素,例如﹕團隊協作、模擬 / 角色扮演;

  • 運用綜合方式來設計課程,須包含「其他學習經歷」的五個範疇的關鍵元素(例如:領導能力培訓、校園電視、戲劇);

原則七:共同學習

第七項原則讓我們看到,「其他學習經歷」為教師及學生提供了寶貴的學習機會。我們鼓勵教師在「其他學習經歷」中擔任促進學習的成人角色,並以「學習者」的身份和學生一同學習。教師可以:

  • 觀察學生在「非學科」的情境下學習,了解更多個別學生的學習風格及方式;

  • 在不同的學習情境中運用不同的學與教方式,從而透過「其他學習經歷」建立他們的能力;

  • 利用「其他學習經歷」,加強學校、家長、社區及學生之間的協作;以及

  • 向持份者及社區,彰顯「其他學習經歷」對學生發展所帶來的益處。

 

目標和預期成果

在推行「其他學習經歷」時,教師應關注下列目標及預期成果:

  • 擴闊學生的視野,以及讓他們培養終身興趣;

  • 培養正面的價值觀和態度;

  • 為學生提供寬廣而均衡的課程,以基要的學習經歷配合核心及選修科目(包括應用學習課程 ),讓學生在德、智、體、纂B美五個方面得到均衡的發展。

  • 促進學生的全人發展,使他們成為終身學習者,具備可持續發展的能力,預期的成果包括:
    - 成為積極、有見識和負責任的公民;
    - 尊重多元價值觀和培養對藝術的興趣;
    - 建立健康的生活模式;以及
    - 建立事業抱負和正面的工作道德觀。

 

 
 
 

Under the NSS Curriculum, OLE is one of the three components that complement the core and elective subjects (including Applied Learning courses) for the whole-person development of students. Building on the foundation of the five Essential Learning Experiences in the Basic Education (Primary 1 - Secondary 3), schools will offer students a range of OLE opportunities encouraging them to participate in the five areas of OLE, namely Moral and Civic Education, Community Service, Career-related Experiences, Aesthetic Development and Physical Development.

New Recommendations for Fine-Tuning OLE

Further to the implementation of the first 3-year cohort of the New Senior Secondary (NSS) Curriculum and the completion of the first Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) Examination in 2012, the Education Bureau, the Curriculum Development Council (CDC), and the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (HKEAA) have jointly conducted the New Academic Structure (NAS) review. The broad objective of the review is to assess the implementation and policy outcomes of the NAS and identify the strengths, good practices as well as the challenges ahead with a view to making effective recommendations for the continual improvement of the NSS curriculum and assessment in future. Based on the result of the review and with reference to the main issues on the curriculum, assessment and articulation pathways for further studies and work, the new recommendations for fine-tuning the NSS curriculum and assessment were delivered in April 2013. For details, please refer to the webpage of the NAS Review (http://www.edb.gov.hk/nas/review/en).

In order to achieve the learning objectives of OLE – providing students with a broad and balanced curriculum with diverse learning experiences to foster whole-person development as well as respect the choice of the majority of schools and their school-based development, the suggested time allocation of OLE is adjusted to 10 to 15% of the total lesson time for the continual enhancement of a balanced development of students through the five areas of OLE (Moral and Civic Education, Community Service, Career-related Experiences, Aesthetic Development and Physical Development).

Other Learning Experiences New Recommendation for Fine-Tuning OLE:
Suggested Time Allocation (in percentage)
Moral and Civic Education 10 - 15%

(For each area, schools have the flexibility
to make adjustments accordingly
upon their existing practices and strengths.)

Community Service
Career-related Experiences
Aesthetic Development
Physical Development

Under the new recommendation, schools are encouraged to have flexible planning of OLE (including time-tabled and non-time-tabled learning time) for students throughout the three years of the NSS education. Besides, schools can make school-based arrangement upon their professional judgment and flexibility in the time allocation of OLE. All along, it is the quality of OLE that matters, rather than the quantity. Schools should facilitate students to deepen and consolidate their own learning through quality reflection so as to nurture students’ life-long learning capability and foster their whole-person development. In the implementation of OLE, it is always NOT just about satisfying the suggested percentage of time allocation, due consideration should be given to the overall planning on the expected learning objectives and outcomes of the respective learning experiences.

 

* Suggested Recommendation for the Fine-tuning of the Time Allocation of OLE, please refer to the “Time Arrangement Examples”.

 

— Building on the strengths and experiences the school has already had, due consideration should be given to the suggested modes of implementation for each type of OLE. For example, Aesthetic Development and Physical Development could be largely implemented in the form of structured lessons, which are already available in many schools. Moral and Civic Education (MCE) is commonly provided in class teacher periods or the assemblies, specifically assigned lessons and other outside class events to develop positive values. Initiatives such as life-skills education, character education, ethics and religious education could be part of MCE. Career-related Experiences and Community Service could be arranged after school, during post-examination time, weekends or school holidays if required.

Building on existing strengths/ practices – Schools are encouraged to review and build OLE into their existing practices and strengths, as well as identifying ‘gaps’ and ‘over-dos’, and making necessary adjustments accordingly. It is not quantity, but quality that matters. Try to avoid re-inventing the entire programmes or ‘change for the sake of change’.

 

Seven Guiding Principles

 

In order to develop a school-based OLE programme, seven guiding principles are suggested for school leaders' and teachers' reference. These are shown in the above figure in which the centrepiece is 'Building on existing practices'. Each of the other six principles is arranged around this central concept to illustrate that it is not about imposing something new but enhancing, re-prioritising or re-conceptualising what already exists.

Principle 1: Building on existing practices/ strengths

The first principle is observed when schools:

  • review and build OLE into their existing practices and strengths, as well as identifying ‘gaps’ and ‘over-dos’, and making adjustments accordingly;
  • avoid ‘re-inventing’ the entire programme or ‘changing just for the sake of change’. For example, based on the new recommended time allocation of OLE, schools should fully utilise the learning opportunities provided by existing Physical Education (PE) lessons to enhance student learning in the context of physical development;
  • clearly communicate the need for change so that teachers both understand and play an active part in planning and developing the OLE programme; and
  • consider leadership strategies such as distributive leadership and allocate leading responsibilities to teachers for OLE if appropriate.
Principle 2: Student-focused

The second principle starts from where the student is (i.e. his or her prior knowledge, attitudes and experiences) and the nature of experiences that engage interest and facilitate achievement. This principle

  • emphasises individual active engagement in activities as opposed to a transmission model of knowledge. The focus is on what students experience and how they internalise and make sense of that experience so as to effect a change in personal values and attitudes; and
  • is more likely to be realised when:
    - individual participation in OLE is recorded in a learning profile through a school-based system which both recognises achievement and provides motivation;
    - choices are offered to cater for individual needs, interests, prior experiences and balanced development to increase the sense of ownership; and
    - student voice and responsibilities are valued in OLE.

Principle 3: Student opportunities

The third principle emphasises the need of a well-distributed range of other learning opportunities for all students in a school. Schools need to:

  • provide their students with opportunities in all the five areas of OLE through careful planning, noting the possibilities that more than one area of OLE could be achieved through a single activity;
  • plan OLE opportunities with a reasonable level of diversity to cater for different individual needs (e.g. one-off ‘taster’ programmes); and
  • take cautious measures not to deprive students from disadvantaged backgrounds (e.g. low-income families) from taking part in OLE activities. Cost-benefits and affordability should be considered when planning OLE activities. Expensive activities are not necessarily more effective than those that cost less.

Principle 4: Quality

The fourth principle reminds us that it is the quality of experience that counts, not quantity. A quality learning experience can sustain or initiate life-long engagement in an area of interest and should comprise the following elements:

  • strong learning intentions with objectives shared with students, together with the teacher being ready for other ‘unintended but positive’ outcomes
  • well-organised meaningful learning experiences, embracing a number of factors in the planning, such as students’ prior knowledge/ experiences, learning needs, motivation and safety
  • programmes run by external bodies or personnel during lesson time and conducted in the presence of registered or permitted teachers in a school
  • timely debriefing with teachers as facilitators and deep reflection among students on what they have learnt

Besides the quality of individual learning experience, the principle also addresses the following dimensions of looking into the quality of OLE:

  • the quality of organising OLE at leadership and management level
  • the quality of organising OLE by creating space and enhancing professional learning
  • the quality of organising OLE through fostering community partnerships

In order to improve the overall organisation of OLE, school leaders need to go beyond the level of individual learning experiences and consider the following:

  • How well does the OLE programme reflect the core values and uniqueness of the school?
  • How effective is the organisational process, such as lateral collaboration among initiatives and groups?
  • How much space and time are given to creating opportunities for both student learning and teachers’ professional learning in the OLE implementation plan?
  • How well do schools/ teachers understand the notions of community resources and partnership, and the building of strong connections with different kinds of community resources for quality OLE?

Principle 5: Coherence

The fifth principle reminds us that OLE should not be a series of ‘unconnected activities’. Neither should OLE be a disconnected component under the SS curriculum. With OLE as an integral part of the curriculum, schools should therefore:

  • ensure that the school-based OLE programme is a development of what is offered in basic education and complements other components in the SS curriculum (e.g. ApL, choice of subjects);
  • try to align OLE with the existing school-based life-wide learning (LWL) strategy and flexible learning time concept, e.g. make OLE part of LWL days or weeks as scheduled in the school calendar and implement OLE during specific sessions of each cycle / week in the time-table; and
  • note that when students take Ethics and Religious Studies, PE, Music and Visual Arts as elective subjects, and/or ApL courses, such learning experiences are beneficial to achieving the aims of the respective OLE components as long as the knowledge, skills and values are understood. Students could record experiences gained through these in their Student Learning Profile. However, schools should note that the provision of sufficient and balanced OLE opportunities is significant in achieving the aims of OLE and a coherent SS curriculum.

(Cross-reference: Basic Education Curriculum Guide, Booklet 6 (CDC, 2002), Learning to Learn – Life-long Learning and Whole-person Development (CDC, 2001))

Principle 6: Flexibility

The sixth principle highlights the importance of flexibility in organising the OLE programmes. Schools can:

  • plan their OLE flexibly, using a wide range of community resources and combinations of time, place and people;
  • offer students a range of strategies to enhance the quality of experiential learning, e.g. teamwork, simulation / role play; and
  • use an integrated approach by designing a programme incorporating key elements across the five areas of OLE (e.g. leadership training, campus TV, dramas).

Principle 7: Learning Together

The seventh principle allows us to see OLE as valuable learning opportunities for teachers, as well as for students. Teachers are encouraged to play the role of facilitating adults in OLE, and to act as learners alongside their students. Teachers can:

  • observe students working in a ‘non-subject’ context and understand more about individuals’ learning styles and approaches;
  • use OLE to build their capacities through trying out diversified learning and teaching approaches in different learning contexts;
  • use OLE to build up stronger collaboration among schools, parents, community and students; and
  • celebrate the benefits of OLE on student development with stakeholders and the wider community.

 

Aims and Expected Outcomes of Other Learning Experiences (OLE)

In implementing Other Learning Experiences, teachers need to keep the following aims and expected outcomes in mind:

  • To widen students’ horizons, and to develop their life-long interests;

  • To nurture positive values and attitudes; and

  • To provide students with a broad and balanced curriculum with essential learning experiences alongside the core and elective components (including Applied Learning (ApL) courses) in order to nurture the five essential Chinese virtues, ‘Ethics, Intellect, Physical Development, Social Skills and Aesthetics’ (德、智、體、纂B美)

  • To facilitate students' all-round development as life-long learners with a focus on sustainable capacities, the expected outcomes include:
    - becoming active, informed and responsible citizens;
    - developing respect for plural values and interests in the arts;
    - adopting a healthy lifestyle; and
    - enhancing career aspirations and positive work ethics.

 


這個網站是為協助教師計劃高中的「其他學習經歷」和「學生學習概覽」而設立。建基在學校現有的優勢上,教師可使用這網站內有關的學校例子,以及社區資源去考慮如何更有效地推行「其他學習經歷」和「學生學習概覽」。本網站資源的版權屬教育局及相關機構所有,惟學校可下載作教學(非商業及非牟利)及參考用途。如有查詢,請致電2892 6242。

This website is established to help teachers plan the school-based OLE and SLP under the senior secondary curriculum. Building on the existing school practices, teachers could make use of the school examples and community resources as reference to consider how OLE and SLP could be implemented in an effective way. The copyright of the resources hosted in this website is co-owned by EDB and the organisations concerned. Schools could download the materials for learning and teaching (non-commercial and non-profit-making) and reference purpose. For enquiry, please contact us on 2892 6242.